The primary screening methods for PC are prostate-specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination (3). However, the reported sensitivity for digital rectal examination is only 55%–68%. For prostate-specific antigen, the specificity is limited because men with benign disease such as prostatic hypertrophy and prostatitis present with elevated levels of the antigen. Its positive predictive value in asymptomatic men has been reported to be only 28%–35%. This predictive value is marginally increased to 49% if prostate-specific antigen estimation is combined with the results of digital rectal examination.
In recent years, PET has emerged as a sensitive modality for imaging oncologic lesions. For PET imaging of PC, such metabolic and biochemical agents as 18F-FDG, 11C-acetate, 18F-acetate, 11C-methionine, 11C-choline, 18F-choline, and 16b-18F-5a-dihydrotestosterone have been investigated.